In the work, he presented a proposal for soil profile description, discussed the physical and chemical properties of soils, and proposed classification of soils based on mineral properties. Vasily Dokuchaev is recognized today as more influential than Fallou, however in the years closely following Dokuchaev's death, Fallou was regarded as the founder of modern soil science by Dokuchaev's student, influential Russian pedologist Konstantin Dmitrievich Glinka Beginning in , the Russian school of soil science under the leadership of V.
Dokuchaev — and N.
Sibirtsev —  was developing a new concept of soil. The Russian workers conceived of soils as independent natural bodies, each with unique properties resulting from a unique combination of climate, living matter, parent material, relief, and time. They hypothesized that properties of each soil reflected the combined effects of the particular set of genetic factors responsible for the soil's formation. Hans Jenny later emphasized the functionally relatedness of soil properties and soil formation. The results of this work became generally available to Americans through the publication in of K.
Glinka 's textbook in German and especially through its translation into English by C.
Marbut in The Russian concepts were revolutionary. Properties of soils no longer were based wholly on inferences from the nature of the rocks or from climate or other environmental factors, considered singly or collectively; rather, by going directly to the soil itself, the integrated expression of all these factors could be seen in the morphology of the soils. This concept required that all properties of soils be considered collectively in terms of a completely integrated natural body.
In short, it made possible a science of soil.
The early enthusiasm for the new concept and for the rising new discipline of soil science led some to suggest the study of soil could proceed without regard to the older concepts derived from geology and agricultural chemistry. Certainly the reverse is true. Besides laying the foundation for a soil science with its own principles, the new concept makes the other sciences even more useful. Soil morphology provides a firm basis on which to group the results of observation, experiments, and practical experience and to develop integrated principles that predict the behavior of the soils.
Under the leadership of C. Marbut , the Russian concept was broadened and adapted to conditions in the United States. This concept emphasized individual soil profiles to the subordination of external soil features and surface geology. By emphasizing soil profiles, however, soil scientists at first tended to overlook the natural variability of soils which can be substantial even within a small area.
Overlooking the variability of soils seriously reduced the value of the maps which showed the location of the soils.
Geoderma, v. Assuming that the solution is in chemical equilibrium with the soil in each segment, the difference in concentration between the equilibrium solution and that entering each segment is calculated. For laboratory experiments, the value of a may well be confounded with nonlinear isotherm and chemically kinetic exchange effects. Selected research opportunities are discussed in order to guide soil science research, with emphasis on soil physics, with the aim of improving agricultural productivity and environmental quality. Specific attention is given to flow and transport processes of water and solutes through and over the soil system, and their effects on crops, vegetation and the groundwater.
Furthermore, early emphasis on genetic soil profiles was so great as to suggest that material lacking a genetic profile, such as recent alluvium, was not soil. A sharp distinction was drawn between rock weathering and soil formation.
Although a distinction between these sets of processes is useful for some purposes, rock and mineral weathering and soil formation are commonly indistinguishable. The concept of soil was gradually broadened and extended during the years following , essentially through consolidation and balance. The major emphasis had been on the soil profile.
Imprint: Elsevier Science. Published Date: 1st August Page Count: View all volumes in this series: Developments in Soil Science. unstersacomroe.cf: Elements of Soil Physics, Volume 13 (Developments in Soil Science) (): P. Koorevaar, G. Menelik, C. Dirksen: Books.
After , morphological studies were extended from single pits to long trenches or a series of pits in an area of a soil. The morphology of a soil came to be described by ranges of properties deviating from a central concept instead of by a single "typical" profile. The development of techniques for mineralogical studies of clays also emphasized the need for laboratory studies.
Marbut emphasized strongly that classification of soils should be based on morphology instead of on theories of soil genesis, because theories are both ephemeral and dynamic. He perhaps overemphasized this point to offset other workers who assumed that soils had certain characteristics without examining the soils. Marbut tried to make clear that examination of the soils themselves was essential in developing a system of Soil Classification and in making usable soil maps.
In spite of this, Marbut's work reveals his personal understanding of the contributions of geology to soil science.
His soil classification of depends heavily on the concept of a "normal soil," the product of equilibrium on a landscape where downward erosion keeps pace with soil formation. Clarification and broadening of the concept of a soil science also grew out of the increasing emphasis on detailed soil mapping. Concepts changed with increased emphasis on predicting crop yields for each kind of soil shown on the maps. Many of the older descriptions of soils had not been quantitative enough and the units of classification had been too heterogeneous for making yield and management predictions needed for planning the management of individual farms or fields.
During the s, soil formation was explained in terms of loosely conceived processes, such as "podzolization," "laterization," and "calcification. In Hans Jenny 's — Factors of Soil Formation, a system of quantitative pedology, concisely summarized and illustrated many of the basic principles of modern soil science to that date.
Since , time has assumed much greater significance among the factors of soil formation, and geomorphological studies have become important in determining the time that soil material at any place has been subjected to soil-forming processes. Meanwhile, advances in soil chemistry, soil physics, soil mineralogy, and soil biology, as well as in the basic sciences that underlie them, have added new tools and new dimensions to the study of soil formation.
As a consequence, the formation of soil has come to be treated as the aggregate of many interrelated physical, chemical, and biological processes. These processes are subject to quantitative study in soil physics, soil chemistry, soil mineralogy, and soil biology. The focus of attention also has shifted from the study of gross attributes of the whole soil to the co-varying detail of individual parts, including grain-to-grain relationships. In both the classification of Marbut and the classification developed by the U. Skip to content.
Search for books, journals or webpages All Pages Books Journals. The Developments in Soil Science series has been designed to provide a comprehensive source of theoretical and practical reference books for scientists working in the broad field of soil science. The series will be of interest to graduate students and researchers in soil science, quantitative ecology, earth sciences, GIS and geodetic sciences, as well as geologists, geomorphologists, hydrologists and landscape ecologists.
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